What is piriformis syndrome?
At my chiropractic office in the Woodbridge, Dale City VA area sciatica is a very common complaint. There are numerous causes of the complaint and one of them is piriformis syndrome. That is the pain that starts in your buttock and shoots into the back of your leg. It has become a more common diagnosis but it is still overlooked. Here is some information on piriformis syndrome that may help.
Pain in the buttock that radiates down the leg is commonly called sciatica. The most common cause for sciatica is irritation of the spinal nerves in or near the lumbar spine. Sometimes the nerve irritation is not in the spine but further down the leg. One possible cause of sciatica is piriformis syndrome. Piriformis syndrome can be painful, but it is seldom dangerous and rarely leads to the need for surgery. Most people with this condition can reduce the pain and manage the problem with simple methods, such as physical therapy.
What parts of the body are involved?
The lower lumbar spinal nerves leave the spine and join to form the sciatic nerve. The sciatic nerve leaves the pelvis through an opening called the sciatic notch.
The piriformis muscle begins inside the pelvis. It connects to the sacrum, the triangular shaped bone that sits between the pelvic bones at the base of the spine. The connection of the sacrum to the pelvis bones forms the sacroiliac joint. There is one sacroiliac joint on the left and one on the right of the low back. The other end of the piriformis muscle connects by a tendon to the greater trochanter, the bump of bone on the top side of your hip.
The piriformis muscle is one of the external rotators of the hip and leg. This means that as the muscle works, it helps to turn the foot and leg outward. Problems in the piriformis muscle can cause problems with the sciatic nerve. This is because the sciatic nerve runs under (and sometimes through) the piriformis muscle on its way out of the pelvis. The piriformis muscle can squeeze and irritate the sciatic nerve in this area, leading to the symptoms of sciatica.
What causes this problem?
The symptoms of sciatica come from irritation of the sciatic nerve. It’s still a mystery why the piriformis muscle sometimes starts to irritate the sciatic nerve. Many doctors think that the condition begins when the piriformis muscle goes into spasm and tightens against the sciatic nerve, squeezing the nerve against the bone of the pelvis.
In some cases, the muscle may be injured due to a fall onto the buttock. Bleeding in and around the piriformis muscle forms a hematoma. A hematoma describes the blood that has pooled in that area. The piriformis muscle begins to swell and put pressure on the sciatic nerve. Soon the hematoma dissolves, but the muscle goes into spasm.
The sciatic nerve stays irritated and continues to be a problem. Eventually the muscle heals, but some of the muscle fibers inside the piriformis muscle are replaced by scar tissue. Scar tissue is not nearly as flexible and elastic as normal muscle tissue. The piriformis muscle can tighten up and put constant pressure against the sciatic nerve.
What does the condition feel like?
Piriformis syndrome commonly causes pain that radiates down the back of the leg. The pain may be felt only on one side, though it is sometimes felt on both sides. The pain can radiate down the leg all the way to the foot and may be confused for a herniated disc in the lumbar spine. Changes in sensation and weakness in the leg or foot are rare. Some people say they feel a sensation of vague tingling down the leg.
Sitting may be difficult. Usually people with piriformis syndrome do not like to sit. When they do sit down, they tend to sit with the sore side buttock tilted up rather than sitting flat in the chair.
Doroski Chiropractic Neurology
3122 Golansky Blvd, Ste 102
Woodbridge VA 22192
703 730 9588